Substance dependence


የንጥረ ነገር ጥገኝነት ፣ እንዲሁም የአደንዛዥ ዕፅ ጥገኝነት በመባል የሚታወቀው፣ የግለሰቡ ተግባር ከሳይኮአክቲቭ ንጥረ ነገር ፍጆታ የተነሳ በግለሰቡ ውስጥ በተፈጠረ የመላመድ ሁኔታ ምክንያት የግለሰቡ ተግባር አስፈላጊ በሆነው የሳይኮአክቲቭ ንጥረ ነገር ላይ የሚመረኮዝበት ባዮሳይኮሎጂያዊ ሁኔታ ነው። መወገድ እና መድሃኒቱን እንደገና መጠቀምን ይጠይቃል። የአደንዛዥ ዕፅ ሱሰኝነት ፣ ከቁስ ጥገኛነት የተለየ ፅንሰ-ሀሳብ፣ እንደ አስገዳጅ ፣ ከቁጥጥር ውጪ የሆነ የመድሃኒት አጠቃቀም፣ አሉታዊ መዘዞች ቢኖረውም ይገለጻል። [1] [2] ΔFosB, የጂን ግልባጭ ምክንያት, በአሁኑ ጊዜ በሁሉም የባህሪ እና የአደገኛ ዕፅ ሱሰኞች እድገት ውስጥ ወሳኝ አካል እና የተለመደ ነገር እንደሆነ ይታወቃል, [3] [4] [5] ግን ጥገኛ አይደለም.

የአለም አቀፍ የበሽታዎች ምደባ የቁስ ጥገኛነትን እንደ የአእምሮ እና የባህርይ መታወክ ይመድባል። [6]የአእምሮ ሕመሞች የምርመራ እና የስታቲስቲክስ መመሪያ ( DSM-IV ) በ 4 ኛው እትም ማዕቀፍ ውስጥ ፣ የቁስ ጥገኛነት እንደ የመድኃኒት ሱስ እንደገና ይገለጻል ፣ እና የማቋረጥ ሲንድሮም ሳይከሰት ሊታወቅ ይችላል። [7] በዚሁ መሰረት ተገልጿል፡- “አንድ ግለሰብ ከቁስ አጠቃቀም ጋር የተያያዙ ችግሮች ቢያጋጥሙትም አልኮልን ወይም ሌሎች መድሃኒቶችን መጠቀሙን ሲቀጥል የቁስ ጥገኛነት ሊታወቅ ይችላል። የግዴታ እና ተደጋጋሚ አጠቃቀም መድሃኒቱ ሲቀንስ ወይም ሲቆም የመድኃኒቱን ተፅእኖ መቻቻል እና የማስወገጃ ምልክቶችን ሊያስከትል ይችላል። ይህ ከንጥረ ነገር አላግባብ መጠቀም ጋር ተያይዞ የንጥረ ነገር አጠቃቀም መታወክ ተደርገው ይወሰዳሉ።" [8] በ DSM-5 (እ.ኤ.አ. በ2013 የተለቀቀው) የዕፅ ሱሰኝነት እና የንጥረ ነገር ጥገኝነት ወደ የዕፅ ሱሰኝነት መዛባት ምድብ ተዋህደዋል እና እንደ ግለሰብ ምርመራዎች የሉም። [9]

  1. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NHM terms-DSM flaw
  2. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named MedlinePlusEncyclopedia 001522 Substance use disorder
  3. ^ "Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 12 (11): 623–37. October 2011. doi:10.1038/nrn3111. PMID 21989194. "ΔFosB has been linked directly to several addiction-related behaviors ... Importantly, genetic or viral overexpression of ΔJunD, a dominant negative mutant of JunD which antagonizes ΔFosB- and other AP-1-mediated transcriptional activity, in the NAc or OFC blocks these key effects of drug exposure14,22–24. This indicates that ΔFosB is both necessary and sufficient for many of the changes wrought in the brain by chronic drug exposure. ΔFosB is also induced in D1-type NAc MSNs by chronic consumption of several natural rewards, including sucrose, high fat food, sex, wheel running, where it promotes that consumption14,26–30. This implicates ΔFosB in the regulation of natural rewards under normal conditions and perhaps during pathological addictive-like states.". 
  4. ^ "Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: hypothesizing common mesolimbic activation as a function of reward gene polymorphisms". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44 (1): 38–55. doi:10.1080/02791072.2012.662112. PMID 22641964. "It has been found that deltaFosB gene in the NAc is critical for reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Pitchers and colleagues (2010) reported that sexual experience was shown to cause DeltaFosB accumulation in several limbic brain regions including the NAc, medial pre-frontal cortex, VTA, caudate, and putamen, but not the medial preoptic nucleus. Next, the induction of c-Fos, a downstream (repressed) target of DeltaFosB, was measured in sexually experienced and naive animals. The number of mating-induced c-Fos-IR cells was significantly decreased in sexually experienced animals compared to sexually naive controls. Finally, DeltaFosB levels and its activity in the NAc were manipulated using viral-mediated gene transfer to study its potential role in mediating sexual experience and experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance. Animals with DeltaFosB overexpression displayed enhanced facilitation of sexual performance with sexual experience relative to controls. In contrast, the expression of DeltaJunD, a dominant-negative binding partner of DeltaFosB, attenuated sexual experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance, and stunted long-term maintenance of facilitation compared to DeltaFosB overexpressing group. Together, these findings support a critical role for DeltaFosB expression in the NAc in the reinforcing effects of sexual behavior and sexual experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance. ... both drug addiction and sexual addiction represent pathological forms of neuroplasticity along with the emergence of aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in the brain's rewarding circuitry.". 
  5. ^ "Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions". Neuropharmacology 61 (7): 1109–22. December 2011. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010. PMID 21459101. 
  6. ^ Drs; "The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines". Microsoft Word.
  7. ^ "Diagnostic criteria for Substance Dependence: DSM IV–TR". BehaveNet.
  8. ^ You must specify title = and url = when using {{cite web}}."".
  9. ^ "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 (5th edition)2014 102 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 (5th edition) Washington, DC American Psychiatric Association 2013 xliv+947 pp. 9780890425541(hbck);9780890425558(pbck) £175 $199 (hbck); £45 $69 (pbck)". Reference Reviews 28 (3): 36–37. 2014-03-11. doi:10.1108/rr-10-2013-0256. ISSN 0950-4125.