ረኔ ዴካርት

ከውክፔዲያ
ዘልለው ለመሔድ፦ የማውጫ ቁልፎችፍለጋ
ደካርት
ስም ፡ ሬኔ ደካርት (René Descartes)
የተወለደበት ቀን ፡ 03-31-1596
የተወለደበት ቦታ ፡ ላ ያየ ኤን ቱሪን (ባሁኑ ስሙ ደካርት)፣ ኤንድሬ ሎሬፈረንሳይ
ያረፈበት ቀን ፡ 02-11-1650
ያረፈበት አገር ፡ ስቶኮልምስዊድን
ዋና የጥናት ፍላጎት፡ ሥነ ህልውናሥነ እውቀትሳይንስ, ሒሳብ
አስተሳሰቡን ተጽኖ ያደረጉት ፕላቶ, አሪስጣጣሊስ, አልሃእን, አቨሮስ, አቬቼና, አልጋዛሊ, አንሴልም, ኦግስጢን, አኳይናስ, ኦክሃም, ሱዋሬዝ, መርሴኔ, ሴክስተስ ኢምፔርከስ, ሞንታኝ, ዱንስ ስኮተስ
እሱ አስተሳሰባዊ ትጽኖ ያደረገባቸው፡ ከሱ ወዲህ የተነሱትን ፈላስፎች በሙሉ ትጽኖ አድርጓል
ታዋቂ ውጤቶቹ ስለማስብ ህልው ነኝ, ስርዓት ያለው ጥርጥር, የካርቴዢያን ሰንጠረዥ, የካርቴዢያን ሁለትዮሽ, ኦንቶሎጂካል አክንዮ ; ሞደርን ፍልስፍና ጀማሪ
ፊርማ Firma Descartes.svg

ሬኔ ደካርት (René Descartes) (መጋቢት 31፣ 1596 – ሐምሌ 1650;) [1] ፈረንሳዊ ሳይንቲስት፣ ሂሳብ ተመራማሪ እና ፈላስፋ የነበረ ሲሆን በአሁኑ ጊዜ የምዕራቡን አለም አዲሱን ፍልስፍና መስራች (የአውሮጳ ፍልስፍና አባት) በመባል ይታወቃል። የዚህ አባባል ምክንይቱ ከሱ ዘመን ወዲህ የተነሱት ፈላስፎች እሱ ባነሳቸው ነጥቦች ላይ ወይ መልስ ሰጥተው ወይም አስፋፍተው በመጻፍቸውን እሱ ካነስቸው ጽንሰ ሃስቦች የተለየ አዲስ ነገር ስላልገኙ ነው። ከፍልስፍና ጽሁፎቹ ውስጥ አትኩረተ ህሊና በፍልስፍና መሰረት ላይ (Meditations on First Philosophy) የተባለው ጽሁፉ እስካሁን ዘመን ድረስ በዩንቨርስቲወች ውስጥ እንደ ዋና የትህርት ክፍል ይሰጣል።

እሱ በፈጠረው የካርቴዢያን ሰንጠረዥ ተብሎ በሚታወቀው አዲስ የጂዎሜትሪ እና አልጀብራ መቀየጫ ዘዴ በሂሳብ ጥናት ላይ ስር ነቀል ለውጥ አምጥቷል። የትንተና ጂዎሜትሪ አባት በመባልም ይታወቃል። በሱ ዘመን አውሮጳ ውስጥ የተነሳው የሳይንስ አብዮት ውስጥ ዋና ተሳታፊ ነበር።

ዴካርት በ17ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን ግዙፍ ስም ያገኘ ፈላስፋ ሲሆን በተለይ በአውሮጳ አህጉር በቀልበኝነት (rationalism) ፍልስፍና ታዋቂነትን ያተረፈና ከሱ ፍልስፍና ተነሰተው በማስፋፋት እነ ባሩክ ስፒኖዛ እና ሌብኒትዝ ለቀልበኛ ፍልስፍና ጥበብ ታላላቅ ድርሻ ሊያበረክቱ ችለዋል። በዚህ ተቃራኒ ግን ልምደኝነት (empiricism) ፍልስፍናን ያራመዱ ፈላስፎች፣ ለምሳሌ ሎክሆብስበርክሊሩሶሂዩምቀልበኛ ፍልስፍናውን አጥብቀው ተቃውመዋል። ደካርት ብዙ ጽሁፍ ቢያቀርብም፣ ባሁኑም ሆነ ቀደምት ክፍለ ዘመናት ስሙ ገኖ የሚታወቀው በአንዲት ጥቅስ ነው፣ እሱዋም «ስለማስብ ህልው ነኝ»፣ በላቲኑ «Cogito ergo sum» ተብሎ ይታወቃል።

የህይወት ታሪክ[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

የፍልስፍን ስርው[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

ሁለትነት[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

ለሂስብ ይበረከተው ገጸ በረከት[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

ደክርት በጊዜው[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

በሃይማኖት ልይ የነበረው አስተሳሰብ[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

ከጽሁፎቹ[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

ታህሥ 1638 ደካርት በጁ የጻፈው ደብዳቤ
  • 1618. Compendium Musicae. A treatise on music theory and the aesthetics of music written for Descartes' early collaborator Isaac Beeckman.
  • 1626–1628. Regulae ad directionem ingenii (Rules for the Direction of the Mind). Incomplete. First published posthumously in 1684. The best critical edition, which includes an early Dutch translation, is edited by Giovanni Crapulli (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1966).
  • 1630–1633. Le Monde (The World) and L'Homme (Man). Descartes' first systematic presentation of his natural philosophy. Man was published posthumously in Latin translation in 1662; and The World posthumously in 1664.
  • 1637. Discours de la méthode (Discourse on the Method). An introduction to the Essais, which include the Dioptrique, the Météores and the Géométrie.
  • 1637. La Géométrie (Geometry). Descartes' major work in mathematics. There is an English translation by Michael Mahoney (New York: Dover, 1979).
  • 1641. Meditationes de prima philosophia (Meditations on First Philosophy), also known as Metaphysical Meditations. In Latin; a French translation, probably done without Descartes' supervision, was published in 1647. Includes six Objections and Replies. A second edition, published the following year, included an additional objection and reply, and a Letter to Dinet.
  • 1644. Principia philosophiae (Principles of Philosophy), a Latin textbook at first intended by Descartes to replace the Aristotelian textbooks then used in universities. A French translation, Principes de philosophie by Claude Picot, under the supervision of Descartes, appeared in 1647 with a letter-preface to Queen Christina of Sweden.
  • 1647. Notae in programma (Comments on a Certain Broadsheet). A reply to Descartes' one-time disciple Henricus Regius.
  • 1647. The Description of the Human Body. Published posthumously.
  • 1648. Responsiones Renati Des Cartes… (Conversation with Burman). Notes on a Q&A session between Descartes and Frans Burman on 16 April 1648. Rediscovered in 1895 and published for the first time in 1896. An annotated bilingual edition (Latin with French translation), edited by Jean-Marie Beyssade, was published in 1981 (Paris: PUF).
  • 1649. Les passions de l'âme (Passions of the Soul). Dedicated to Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia.
  • 1656. Musicae Compendium (Instruction in Music). Posth. Publ.: Johannes Janssonius jun., Amsterdam
  • 1657. Correspondence. Published by Descartes' literary executor Claude Clerselier. The third edition, in 1667, was the most complete; Clerselier omitted, however, much of the material pertaining to mathematics.

ማጣቀሻ[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

Principia philosophiae, 1685

የተስብሰቡ የደክርት ስራወች

  • 1983. Oeuvres de Descartes in 11 vols. Adam, Charles, and Tannery, Paul, eds. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin.
  • 1988. The Philosophical Writings Of Descartes in 3 vols. Cottingham, J., Stoothoff, R., Kenny, A., and Murdoch, D., trans. Cambridge University Press.

ነጠላ ስራወቹ

  • 1618. Compendium Musicae.
  • 1628. Rules for the Direction of the Mind.
  • 1637. Discourse on the Method ("Discours de la Methode"). An introduction to Dioptrique, Des Météores and La Géométrie. Original in French, because intended for a wider public.
  • 1637. La Géométrie. Smith, David E., and Lantham, M. L., trans., 1954. The Geometry of René Descartes. Dover.
  • 1641. Meditations on First Philosophy. Cottingham, J., trans., 1996. Cambridge University Press. Latin original. Alternative English title: Metaphysical Meditations. Includes six Objections and Replies. A second edition published the following year, includes an additional ‘’Objection and Reply’’ and a Letter to Dinet. HTML Online Latin-French-English Edition
  • 1644. Les Principes de la philosophie. Miller, V. R. and R. P., trans., 1983. Principles of Philosophy. Reidel.
  • 1647. Comments on a Certain Broadsheet.
  • 1647. The Description of the Human Body.
  • 1648. Conversation with Burman.
  • 1649. Passions of the Soul. Voss, S. H., trans., 1989. Indianapolis: Hackett. Dedicated to Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia.

ሌሎች ጽሁፎቹ

  • Boyer, Carl (1985). A History of Mathematics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02391-3. 
  • Clarke, Desmond (2006). Descartes: A Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82301-3. 
  • Costabel, Pierre (1987). René Descartes - Exercices pour les éléments des solides. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 2-13-040099-X. 
  • Cottingham, John (1992). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36696-8. 
  • Duncan, Steven M. (2008). The Proof of the External World: Cartesian Theism and the Possibility of Knowledge. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. ISBN 978-0-227-17267-4 http://www.lutterworth.com/jamesclarke/jc/titles/proofew.htm. 
  • Farrell, John. “Demons of Descartes and Hobbes.” Paranoia and Modernity: Cervantes to Rousseau (Cornell UP, 2006), chapter 7.
  • Garber, Daniel (1992). Descartes' Metaphysical Physics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-28219-8. 
  • Garber, Daniel; Michael Ayers (1998). The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53721-5. 
  • Gaukroger, Stephen (1995). Descartes: An Intellectual Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-823994-7. 
  • Giuseppe Leone, [Il quarto centenario dalla nascita di Cartesio (1596)], Una "ragione" per l'Europa Unita, in "Ricorditi di me...", su Lecco 2000, Aprile 1996.
  • Grayling, A.C. (2005). Descartes: The Life and times of a Genius. New York: Walker Publishing Co., Inc.. ISBN 0-8027-1501-X. 
  • Gillespie, A. (2006). Descartes’ demon: A dialogical analysis of ‘Meditations on First Philosophy.’[1] Theory & Psychology, 16, 761-781.
  • Keeling, S. V. (1968). Descartes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN. 
  • Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-19-517510-7. 
  • Moreno Romo, Juan Carlos (Coord.), Descartes vivo. Ejercicios de hermenéutica cartesiana, Anthropos, Barcelona, 2007'
  • Ozaki, Makoto (1991). Kartenspiel, oder Kommentar zu den Meditationen des Herrn Descartes. Berlin: Klein Verlag.. ISBN 3-927199-01-X. 
  • Moreno Romo, Juan Carlos, Vindicación del cartesianismo radical, Anthropos, Barcelona, 2010.
  • Schäfer, Rainer (2006). Zweifel und Sein - Der Ursprung des modernen Selbstbewusstseins in Descartes' cogito. Wuerzburg: Koenigshausen&Neumann. ISBN 3-8260-3202-0. 
  • Serfati, M., 2005, "Geometria" in Ivor Grattan-Guinness, ed., Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. Elsevier: 1-22.
  • Sorrell, Tom (1987). Descartes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.. ISBN 0-19-287636-8. 

የውጭ ማጣቀሻወች[ለማስተካከል | ኮድ አርም]

ቭዲዩ

አጠቃላይ

ስታንፎርድ ዩኒቨርሲቲ መዝገበ-ዕውቀት ይዞታ

  1. ^ Colie, Rosalie L. (1957). Light and Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press. p. 58.